Project Documents

Report 1 / 2014 “Defining the general parameters for the study of nucleation; anti hail techniques”. This project stage contains the following activities:

  • Definition of relevant parameters and expected scales – studies regarding the relevant parameters and the analysis of hail events in the period 2004 – 2014, in order to establish the optimum period for the phase 2 campaign.
  • Elaboration of technical specification for an equipment to study nucleation; anti hail techniques 
  • Lidar up-grade system for depolarization studies – modernization of equipment for the study of hail events
  • Project webpage design – webpage made in conformity with contracting agency requirements.

Report 2 Observation by systematic measurements of hail formation processes, aimed to create a synergy of varied remote sensing instruments, used for the monitoring and characterization of aerosols and clouds, to identify the important parameters that define the aerosols, which can become condensation nuclei and the meteorological parameters which define the clouds with hail potential. In order to achieve the objectives of this stage, the following activities have been undertaken:

  • Equipment development to study nucleation in laboratory conditions
  • Development of a system to measure cloud characteristics before and after seeding, in real atmosphere – activity through which the ground -based remote sensing equipment, used to characterize aerosols and clouds, has been purchased or modernized, in order to be applied in campaigns of hail clouds seeding. Therefore:
    • a moon photometer has been purchased to be used for the characterization of aerosols physical properties and their impact on the cloud formation processes;
    •  a depolarization and scanning lidar system has been modernized.
  • Communication and results publication – dissemination activities for this stage.
  • Experimental campaign to measure cloud characteristics before and after seeding, in real atmosphere – campaign preparation – aimed to analyze radar data and identify the areas with the most frequent hail events and the period when their frequency was high.
  • The statistical analysis regarding hail production for effective intervention – this encompassed the analysis part of data obtained from the measurements made over the entire project phase – will continue in 2016 by organizing measurement sessions with the ground-based remote sensing equipment in the regions with high risk of hail formation.


  • Studies regarding the relevant parameters for the characterization of aerosols and convective clouds
  • Study with regard to the frequency of hail events in the period 2004 – 2014
  • Technical specifications for nucleation study equipment
  • Project webpage
  • Virtual library with the most recent studies and anti-hail activities.
  • Functional model for the equipment to study nucleation.
  • Functional model for a system to measure the characteristics of hail clouds.
  • 5 scientific communications and 1 scientific publication in a proceedings book.


  2. M. Paraschivescu, S. Stefan, M. Bogdan, 2011, Verification of an algorithm (DWSR 2500C) for hail detection,  Atmósfera 24 (4), 417-433
  3. Paraschivescu, M, Rambu N, and Stefan S, 2012, Atmospheric circulations associated to the interannual variability of cumulonimbus cloud frequency in the southern part of Romania, International Journal of Climatology, 32 (6), 920–928
  4. Nicolae D. et al.,  Romanian Atmospheric 3D research Observatory: synergy of instruments, Rom Rep Phys, 62, p. 838-853, 2010
  5. D. Gerber et al., Ground-based water vapour soundings by microwave radiometry and Raman lidar on Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps), Atmos Chem Phys 4, 2171-2179, 2004
  6. R.J. Hogan and A.J. Illingworth, 2000, Measuring Crystal Size in Cirrus Using 35- and 94-GHz Radars, Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17, 27–37.